We are currently inwards the Eighth Generation of video game consoles, in addition to at that spot is no doubtfulness that video game estimator graphics choose come upwardly along agency since 1972, when the First Generation of video game consoles started out amongst the advent of the Magnavox Odyssey video game console. Home computers entered the marketplace position v years later on inwards 1977, in addition to just i twelvemonth before inwards 1976 the Second Generation of video game consoles was underway amongst the Atari 2600 (8-bit), which was inarguable the most pop game console of the Second Generation.
By 1983 in addition to 1989, the Nintendo Entertainment System in addition to TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem gave nativity to the Third Generation in addition to Fourth Generation of game consoles respectably carrying an 8-bit in addition to 16-bit estimator graphics respectably.
How Old Video Games Were Made
To empathize how erstwhile video games were made, nosotros must empathize the challenges video game designers faced when it came to adding color to video games. Factors they had to larn out on inwards hear were color depth in addition to video RAM. Color depth (a.k.a chip depth) is the number of bits used for each color component subdivision of a unmarried pixel; piece Video RAM (a.k.a concealment memory) is the retentiveness used to shop the icon information inwards the concealment display.
To laissez passer on yous an persuasion of how much video RAM color used, if video game designers just wanted to add together the colors dark in addition to piece (1-bit color or monochrome), that solitary would quest 8 kilobytes of RAM just to shop the information displayed inwards the screen.
If game designers were to add together 4-bit color (16 colors) or fifty-fifty 8-bit color (256 colors), this would quest 32 kilobytes in addition to 64 kilobytes of RAM respectively. You tin flame imagine right away how much of an number video RAM was to video game designers dorsum then. It may non audio similar much right away but at the time, 8-bit color (256 colors) would essentially operate upwardly 64K bytes of video RAM. Even the highest spec habitation estimator of the solar daytime such every bit the Aamber Pegasus exclusively had 64K RAM.
Three Ways To Add More Color Without Increasing RAM
As video RAM solitary would eat upwardly all the retentiveness space, leaving out no room for the code, video game designers had to figure out ways to add together to a greater extent than color to the concealment display without using up
also much video RAM. They came upwardly amongst iii ways to overcome the video RAM high-usage number past times either using Color Cells (like Commodore in addition to Nintendo Entertainment System did), using NTSC Artifact Coloring (like Apple II and Tandy Color estimator did) in addition to using CPU Driven Graphics which the Atari 2600 is a cracking illustration of.
The most pop method used past times most early on 1980’s video game designers was adding color past times using an additional 1K of RAM in addition to defining Color Cells on the screen. These cells divided the concealment upwardly into areas that were 8×8 pixels. Within each cell, video game designers were able to define a foreground in addition to background color.
Defining Color cells was a cracking agency to add together color in addition to gratuitous upwardly video RAM but it was express every bit game designers could exclusively choose 2 colors per cell. You tin flame encounter how past times using color cells game designers were able to add together xvi colors to erstwhile video games. Saying this, video game designers could non ever position the colors precisely where they wanted them to go, which made color prison theatre cellphone coloring really laborious. Realizing this now, it makes me realize how difficult video game designers had to piece of job dorsum thence to choose video games to life!
Multi-color Mode in addition to Hardware Sprite
Video game designers at the fourth dimension knew the limitations of using color cells thence they had to employ to a greater extent than flexible options to add together color such every bit using a multi-color trend in addition to a hardware sprite. Multi-color trend (used past times Commodore 64 habitation computer) made the pixels twice every bit broad which cutting the concealment resolution past times half, in addition to exclusively consumed 9K RAM. Multi-color trend allowed video game designers to operate 4 colors per prison theatre cellphone instead of 2.
The other pop coloring selection was called a hardware sprite which worked past times allowing graphical objects to motion independently of the game playfield. For instance, Atari VCS’s sprites, called players in addition to missiles, were constructed from a unmarried row of pixels that displayed on a scan business to create a two-dimensional shape. The sprite’s single-row bitmap is altered past times software from i scanline to the next. The Commodore 64 had 8 dissimilar sprites, the Nintendo had 64 dissimilar sprites. The Mario grapheme solitary was made of 4 sprites.
NTSC artifact coloring
NTSC artifact coloring was by in addition to large used past times the Tandy Color Computer (a.k.a. TRS-80 Color Computer) in addition to had a 256×192 pixel trend (Color Computer 2) that could exercise artifact coloring to laissez passer on an effective resolution of 280×192 amongst 4 colors (black, white, cerise in addition to blue).
The Apple II also supported a 280×192 pixel High Resolution Graphics mode. The actual pixels were white in addition to did non comprise color/hue or saturation information. Each of bits, except the highest, of every retentiveness byte for the HGR page could display a unmarried point if laid (logical 1). A unmarried retentiveness location could develop to 7 consecutive pixels. Pixels on fifty-fifty horizontal lines would seem every bit majestic first, on strange lines they would move greenish first. If i pixel was set, it would move inwards color on a color monitor. If 2 following pixels were set, they would seem every bit a double-wide white pixel.
Similarly, if 2 following pixels were off, they would seem every bit black. The play a joke on to getting company colors was to house pixels inwards an alternating on-off-on pattern. That is why yous would oftentimes encounter “serrated” or “stripey” graphics amongst a monochrome display instead of a company color. The effective color resolution is something roughly 140×192.
CPU Driven Graphics
CPU driven graphics was some other technique used past times video game designers to create visuals depending on whether yous had a monochrome or color screen. Apple II in addition to Atari 2600 pioneered this technique which had its drawbacks. For instance, an Apple II attached to a color concealment would exhibit white text on a dark background appearing nearly rainbow-like because of the pixel placement. The colors bluish in addition to greenish following to each other were peculiarly tricky to align on the screen, which made some games images bleed into each other.
As far every bit some Atari 2600 games displaying dark bars on the left side of the display, this was non due to CPU bottleneck, but to the dedicated graphics processor (called the TIA) of the Atari 2600. As the TIA drew the concealment per scanline, instead of, per total concealment bitmap it created the dark bars. The CPU on the Atari 2600 but loaded the relevant information to the TIA registers for it to display, just similar the Nintendo Entertainment System in addition to Commodore 64’s CPU did.